independent study


an Enriched Language for Place


Neuroscience of place 


Original Vocabulary List




scientific studies

Construction of Cognitive Maps to Improve E-book Reading and Navigation (2012)

Community in the Information Age (2015)


Aronov, Dmitriy, and David W. Tank. “Engagement of Neural Circuits Underlying 2D Spatial Navigation in a Rodent Virtual Reality System.” Neuron 84.2 (2014): 442–456. PMC. Web. 9 May 2017.


Ravassard P, Kees A, Willers B, Ho D, Aharoni D, Cushman J, Aghajan ZM, Mehta MR. Multisensory control of hippocampal spatiotemporal selectivity. Science. 2013; 340:1342–1346. [PubMed: 23641063] 


Chen G, King JA, Burgess N, O’Keefe J. How vision and movement combine in the hippocampal place code. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013; 110:378–383. [PubMed: 23256159] 


Zahra M. Aghajan, Lavanya Acharya, Jason J. Moore, Jesse D. Cushman, Cliff Vuong, Mayank R. Mehta. Impaired spatial selectivity and intact phase precession in two-dimensional virtual reality. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Jan; 18(1): 121–128. Published online 2014 Nov 24. doi: 10.1038/nn.3884


McNaughton B.L., Battaglia F.P., Jensen O., Moser E.I., Moser M.-B. Path integration and the neural basis of the ‘cognitive map’ Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2006;7:663–678. [PubMed]


O’Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map (Clarendon Press, 1978).


Stackman RW, Taube JS. 1996. Temporary inactivation of the vestibular system disrupts hippocampal place cell activity. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:1873.


G. K. Aguirre, J. A. Detre, D. C. Alsop, M. D’Esposito. The parahippocampus subserves topographical learning in man. Cereb Cortex. 1996 Nov-Dec; 6(6): 823–829.


John O’Keefe, Neil Burgess, James G. Donnett, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Eleanor A.Maguire. Place cells, navigational accuracy, and the human hippocampus Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 1998 353 1333-1340; DOI: 10.1098/rstb.1998.0287. Published 29 August 1998


Brian J. Stankiewicz, Amy A. Kalia. Acquisition of structural versus object landmark knowledge.J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2007 Apr; 33(2): 378–390.


Taube, J. S. (1999), Some thoughts on place cells and the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 9: 452–457. 


Edvard I. Moser, Emilio Kropff, May-Britt Moser. Place cells, grid cells, and the brain’s spatial representation system.

Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008; 31: 69–89


Horner, Aidan J. et al. “Grid-like Processing of Imagined Navigation.” Current Biology 26.6 (2016): 842–847.


Aikath, D., Weible, A. P., Rowland, D. C. and Kentros, C. G. (2014), Role of self-generated odor cues in contextual representation. Hippocampus, 24: 1039–1051. doi:10.1002/hipo.22289


London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis.

Eleanor A. Maguire, Katherine Woollett, Hugo J. Spiers


Maguire EA, Frackowiak RSJ, Frith CD. 1997. Recalling routes around London: Activation of the right hippocampus in taxi drives. J Neurosci 17:7103–7110. 


Maguire EA, Frith CD, Burgess N, Donnett JG, O’Keefe J. 1998a. Knowing where things are parahippocampal involvement in encoding object locations in virtual large-scale space. J Cogn Neurosci 10: 61–76.



Neuroscience, IV Edition (2015)

Environmental Psychology (1996)


Artistic Interpretations

Drawing Energy

Creative Citizens

You are Here

Sense of The City



Alone Together

It's Complicated

Soft City

The Image of the City

Walkable Cities


Experiences + installations

I Wish This Was


past iterations


What if we...?

Had a different vocabulary to supplement our knowledge of place? 




Proposition Definition


What if we...?

Had a way for our episodic memories to be more present when we re-experience a space?